Friday, February 14, 2020

Basic knowledge of cancer that you want to know

Basic knowledge of cancer that you want to know

1. About cancer
Cancer is considered to be one of the following diseases:
1) Anyone could be
Currently, it is said that one in two Japanese people will have some form of cancer in their lifetime. Cancer is a familiar disease for everyone.

Cumulative morbidity risk (Cutting risk)  Cumulative mortality risk (Cutting risk)
2) Can be prevented but not completely
Cancer is a disease that can be made more difficult (prevent) by quitting smoking, reviewing eating habits, and eliminating lack of exercise.
But even if you keep them in mind, you can't "prevent" cancer.
3) It is not a depression disease
Cancer is a disease caused by a damaged gene. The disease of cancer itself does not spread from person to person.
In some cancers, viral infections may be the background, but a number of other factors have been involved over the years to develop cancer.

2. Difference between cancer (malignant tumor) and benign tumor

The characteristics of cancer (malignant tumor) are listed below.

Autonomous growth: Cancer cells continue to grow independently and do not stop, without regard to the normal metabolism of humans.
Invasion and metastasis: Spreading out to the surroundings (infiltration), and scattered throughout the body (metastasis), creating new cancer tissue one after another.
Cachexia: Cancer tissue depletes more and more nutrients that other normal tissues try to consume, causing the body to weaken.
Benign tumors undergo the above-mentioned "autonomous growth", but do not cause "invasion and metastasis" or "cachexia". The growth speed is slower than that of malignant tumors. Depending on the size and location of the tumor, symptoms may occur, but if it is completely removed surgically, it will not recur.

A typical benign tumor is uterine fibroids. In addition, there are ovarian cysts (lanus cysts) and cutaneous cysts (cystic cysts). However, some benign tumors, such as brain tumors, may have a severe clinical course depending on the site of occurrence.
3. Cancer type and name
Cancer names are generally categorized by the organ, tissue, etc., in which they developed.
Hiragana "cancer" is used to indicate the entire malignant tumor, and the kanji expression "cancer" is often used to limit cancers that arise from epithelial cells.
■ Classification of cancer (malignant tumor) by site of occurrence
Cancer (malignant tumor) is classified into the following 1) to 3). Occasionally, a single tumor, called a carcinosarcoma, is a mixture of the two. The frequency of occurrence is 2) Cancers originating from epithelial cells account for more than 80%, and occur overwhelmingly.
1) Cancer that arises from hematopoiesis
The bone marrow and lymph nodes, which are the organs that make blood, are called hematopoiesis. Cancers that arise from hematopoietic organs include leukemia, malignant lymphoma, and myeloma.
2) Cancer originating from epithelial cells (epithelial tumor)
The cells that make up the epithelium are called epithelial cells. Representative cancers (cancer, carcinoma) originating from epithelial cells include lung, breast, stomach, colorectal, uterine, ovarian, and head and neck (laryngeal) cancers. , Pharyngeal cancer, tongue cancer, etc.).
3) Sarcoma arising from non-epithelial cells
Sarcoma is a cancer that begins in non-epithelial cells such as bones and muscles. Typical sarcomas include osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, liposarcoma, and hemangiosarcoma.
■ Classification by cancer shape
Except for cancers that arise from hematopoietic organs, most grow in clumps. Cancer that arises from hematopoietic organs is sometimes called "blood cancer," and others are called "solid cancers."
● Epithelial neoplasm

Among the cancers that arise from epithelial cells, those in which the cancer cells remain in the epithelium that covers the surface of the organ are called intraepithelial neoplasia (neoplasm). In situ neoplasms are also called carcinoma in situ.

Intraepithelial neoplasia is a condition in which cancer cells have not spread through the membrane (basement membrane) that separates the epithelium from the stroma. Therefore, it is basically possible to perform surgery, and it is considered that there are few metastases. A common form of "cancer" is when a neoplasm in the epithelium becomes malignant and invades beyond the basement membrane.

Intraepithelial neoplasia is most commonly observed in the cervix, where precancerous dysplasia and intraepithelial neoplasia often coexist, and the two are not always clearly distinguishable. I can't. Therefore, we regard these as a series of consecutive lesions and call them "cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)".

4. Cancer testing and treatment
1) The time required for testing and diagnosis is the required time
In many cases, it takes time to start treatment. A precise diagnosis of cancer requires detailed examinations and tests.
In cancer treatment, it is important to maximize the effects of the treatment and at the same time, minimize the burden on the body. Many tests and the time it takes are necessary to get the right treatment.
2) "Standard treatment" is the best treatment
Cancer treatments change with advances in technology and the results of medical research. The best treatment based on currently available scientific evidence is called "standard treatment." Standard treatment consists of surgery, drug therapy, and radiation therapy alone or in a combination. For most types of cancer, methods other than surgery, drug therapy, and radiation therapy (such as immunotherapy, hyperthermia, and alternative therapies (health foods and supplements)) have not been scientifically proven. In most cases, receiving "standard treatment" is the best option.

In addition to treatment for the cancer itself, palliative care is also provided to ease the physical and mental difficulties associated with the cancer.
(1) Surgery
Surgical removal of the cancer. By reducing the area to be resected or devising the surgical procedure, the surgical strategy is determined to reduce the burden on the body and minimize complications after treatment.
The length of hospital stay varies greatly depending on the condition of the patient and the method of surgery, but recently the length of hospital stay tends to be shorter. If the postoperative recovery is good, it is becoming common to leave the hospital and see the progress in an outpatient clinic. Keep in mind that it is not necessarily “discharge = complete cure”.

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